Report Description

Forecast Period


Market Size (2023)

USD 210.57 million

CAGR (2024-2029)


Fastest Growing Segment

Electromechanical Equipment

Largest Market

South India

Market Overview

India Small Hydropower Market was valued at USD 210.57 million in 2023 and is anticipated to project robust growth in the forecast period with a CAGR of 2.09% through 2029. Increasing environmental awareness and mounting concerns regarding climate change have prompted a worldwide transition towards cleaner and sustainable energy sources. Small hydropower emerges as an environmentally friendly alternative, given its low greenhouse gas emissions in comparison to fossil fuels, thereby aiding in the reduction of the energy sector's carbon footprint.

Key Market Drivers

Increasing Energy Demand and Sustainable Development Goals

India's small hydropower market is witnessing strong growth propelled by various key factors, with the foremost focus being on meeting the increasing energy demand and achieving sustainable development goals. As one of the world's fastest-growing economies, India has experienced a significant surge in its energy requirements driven by factors like population growth, urbanization, and industrialization. To address these rising energy needs, the Indian government has turned to renewable energy sources, including small hydropower, as a viable and sustainable solution.

Small hydropower projects, typically ranging from a few kilowatts to several megawatts in capacity, play a crucial role in catering to the country's energy demands. Unlike large hydropower plants, small hydropower projects have a comparatively lower environmental and social impact, making them an appealing choice in line with India's commitment to achieving its Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). These projects contribute significantly to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, enhancing energy security, and promoting clean energy generation, aligning with India's endeavors to combat climate change and reduce its carbon footprint.

Moreover, small hydropower projects often involve local communities in their development, providing employment opportunities and fostering economic growth in rural areas. This not only helps bridge the energy gap but also contributes to poverty alleviation and inclusive development, aligning with SDG 1 (No Poverty) and SDG 7 (Affordable and Clean Energy). As a result, the growing emphasis on sustainable development and the pursuit of SDGs continue to stimulate investments and drive growth in India's small hydropower market.

Favorable Policy and Regulatory Framework

The growth of India's small hydropower market is significantly driven by a favorable policy and regulatory framework. The Indian government has implemented a range of policies, incentives, and initiatives to promote renewable energy sources, with a specific focus on small hydropower projects. These policies have created an enabling environment that attracts investments and encourages project development.

One notable initiative is the Small Hydro Power Program, launched by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE). This program provides financial incentives, subsidies, and concessional loans to developers, making investments in small hydropower projects economically viable. Additionally, the government offers various tax benefits and exemptions, including accelerated depreciation, to incentivize private sector participation.

Furthermore, the Electricity Act, 2003, and the National Tariff Policy have streamlined the approval, permitting, and tariff processes for small hydropower projects. This has reduced bureaucratic hurdles and improved the ease of doing business in the sector, attracting both domestic and foreign investors.

India has also implemented renewable purchase obligations (RPOs) that mandate utilities to procure a certain percentage of their power from renewable sources, including small hydropower. Non-compliance with RPOs can result in penalties, further motivating utilities to invest in renewable energy projects. All these policy measures and incentives have created a conducive environment for the growth of small hydropower in India.

Technological Advancements and Project Viability

Technological advancements in the small hydropower sector have significantly contributed to its growth in India. These advancements have rendered small hydropower projects more cost-effective, efficient, and environmentally friendly, thereby enhancing their overall viability.

One pivotal technological innovation is the development of compact and efficient turbines suitable for low head and small flow conditions, which are prevalent in many Indian rivers and streams. These turbines have bolstered the overall efficiency of small hydropower projects, augmenting their electricity generation capacity while mitigating environmental impacts.

Moreover, advancements in automation, remote monitoring, and control systems have facilitated the management and maintenance of small hydropower plants, resulting in reduced operational costs and downtime. This has further improved the economic feasibility of these projects.

Additionally, India has witnessed innovations in financing models, including the utilization of public-private partnerships (PPPs) and crowdfunding, which have opened up new avenues for funding small hydropower projects. These financing models have provided opportunities for a broader range of investors to partake in the sector, thereby propelling its growth.

In conclusion, India's small hydropower market is thriving due to a combination of factors, including escalating energy demand and sustainable development goals, a favorable policy and regulatory framework, and ongoing technological advancements. As India continues to expand its renewable energy capacity, small hydropower projects are poised to play a pivotal role in accomplishing a sustainable and clean energy future for the country.

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Key Market Challenges

Environmental and Social Concerns

India's small hydropower market holds immense potential for sustainable energy generation; however, it confronts significant challenges related to environmental and social concerns. These challenges often arise from the construction and operation of small hydropower projects, which can have adverse impacts on local ecosystems and communities.

A major environmental challenge revolves around the alteration of river ecosystems. Small hydropower projects typically involve dam construction or water diversion, which can disrupt natural river flow patterns and lead to habitat fragmentation. Such changes can inflict harm upon aquatic ecosystems, affecting fish migration, water quality, and biodiversity. Additionally, sedimentation behind dams can reduce reservoir lifespan and impact downstream areas.

Furthermore, small hydropower projects may necessitate land acquisition, resulting in deforestation and habitat destruction. The construction phase can lead to soil erosion and disturbance of local flora and fauna. Thorough environmental impact assessments (EIAs) and mitigation plans must be implemented to carefully evaluate and address these environmental impacts.

Social challenges encompass the potential displacement of local communities and disruptions to their livelihoods. Land acquisition for hydropower projects often deprives communities of access to agricultural or forest resources that they depend on. Moreover, alterations to river ecosystems can impact the livelihoods of fishing communities. Inadequate compensation or resettlement plans can trigger social unrest and conflicts, thereby complicating project development.

To tackle these challenges, it is imperative for the Indian government and developers to prioritize sustainable project planning and conduct comprehensive environmental and social impact assessments. Transparent and fair compensation, as well as active involvement of local communities in decision-making processes, can effectively mitigate these challenges and foster responsible small hydropower development.

Financing and Investment Constraints

India's small hydropower market faces significant challenges concerning financing and investment constraints. Despite the growing interest in renewable energy, securing funding for small hydropower projects proves to be a demanding task, especially for smaller developers and regions with limited financial resources.

The primary hurdle lies in the substantial upfront capital cost associated with small hydropower projects, including expenses for dam construction, turbines, generators, and transmission infrastructure. Obtaining adequate financing at competitive rates can be arduous, particularly for developers lacking a track record or collateral to offer as security.

Furthermore, small hydropower projects often encounter challenges in procuring long-term power purchase agreements (PPAs). Power distribution companies (DISCOMs) may hesitate to commit to purchasing electricity from these projects due to concerns about grid stability and reliability. This uncertainty poses difficulties for project developers in attracting investors and securing the necessary funding.

In addition to traditional financing obstacles, small hydropower projects may face difficulties in accessing government grants, subsidies, and incentives. Bureaucratic red tape and delays in disbursing incentives can hinder project viability and discourage potential investors.

Addressing these financing challenges requires a comprehensive approach. The government can play a pivotal role by streamlining the approval process, expediting incentives and subsidies, and promoting favorable lending terms for small hydropower projects. Developing innovative financing mechanisms such as green bonds and risk-sharing agreements can also facilitate private sector investment and enhance the financial viability of these projects.

Technical and Operational Challenges

India's small hydropower market encounters technical and operational challenges that can hinder the efficient and reliable generation of electricity. These challenges primarily stem from the diverse geographical and hydrological conditions prevalent in the country.

A key technical challenge pertains to the variability in river flows. Small hydropower projects rely on consistent water flows for electricity generation, but seasonal variations, droughts, and changing rainfall patterns can significantly impact water availability. Consequently, projects may experience periods of low or zero electricity generation, thereby impacting their financial viability.

Maintenance and operation of small hydropower projects can also pose challenges, particularly in remote and inaccessible locations. Ensuring the proper functioning of turbines, generators, and other equipment necessitates skilled personnel and regular inspections. Nevertheless, the scarcity of skilled manpower and the high operational costs can strain the resources of small project developers.

Furthermore, integrating small hydropower projects into the existing power grid can present technical complexities. The grid infrastructure may not be adequately equipped to handle fluctuations in electricity supply from small hydropower sources, potentially leading to instability and grid failures.

To address these challenges, India should prioritize investments in modernizing and upgrading its small hydropower infrastructure. This encompasses adopting advanced monitoring and control systems to optimize electricity generation, as well as upgrading the grid to accommodate intermittent renewable sources. Technical training and capacity building for personnel involved in project maintenance and operation are also essential to ensure the long-term viability of these projects. Additionally, effective water resource management and flow regulation measures can help mitigate the impacts of river flow variability.

Key Market Trends

Increased Focus on Decentralized Energy Generation

One noteworthy trend in the India Small Hydropower Market is the increasing focus on decentralized energy generation. Decentralized energy systems involve producing electricity closer to the point of consumption, thereby reducing transmission and distribution losses and enhancing grid resilience. Small hydropower projects align seamlessly with this trend, as they can be implemented in remote and off-grid areas, delivering reliable and clean electricity to underserved regions.

India's extensive and diverse geography presents numerous opportunities for decentralized small hydropower installations. These projects can have a particularly significant impact in hilly and mountainous regions, where grid connectivity often poses challenges. By harnessing the energy potential of local rivers and streams, small hydropower projects can offer communities a sustainable source of electricity, powering homes, businesses, and agricultural activities.

In addition to improving energy access, decentralized small hydropower systems contribute to rural development by creating job opportunities, stimulating economic growth, and reducing reliance on fossil fuels. As India continues to promote decentralized energy generation, we can anticipate a growing number of small hydropower projects addressing the energy needs of remote and off-grid areas.

Integration with Energy Storage Solutions

Another emerging trend in the India Small Hydropower Market is the integration of energy storage solutions, such as batteries, to enhance the reliability and flexibility of small hydropower generation. Energy storage systems play a crucial role in mitigating the intermittent nature of renewable energy sources, ensuring a stable and consistent electricity supply.

Small hydropower projects can significantly benefit from energy storage integration, especially in regions with fluctuating water flows. By storing excess energy during high generation periods and releasing it during low-flow periods or peak demand, these projects can provide a more reliable and predictable power supply. This capability is essential for meeting the energy needs of both grid-connected and off-grid communities.

Moreover, the integration of energy storage enables small hydropower projects to participate in demand response programs and provide ancillary services to the grid. This not only enhances the economic viability of these projects but also strengthens overall grid stability and resilience.

With advancements in battery technology and its increasing cost-effectiveness, we can anticipate a growing number of small hydropower projects incorporating energy storage solutions. This will further enhance their competitiveness and contribute to India's renewable energy landscape.

Segmental Insights

Capacity Insights

The 1–10 MW emerged as the dominant segment in 2023. The 1-10 MW segment plays a crucial role in the small hydropower market, offering a wide range of opportunities. These projects are economically viable due to their relatively moderate capital costs compared to larger hydropower plants.

Within the 1-10 MW range, projects can vary significantly in size and complexity. Smaller projects at the lower end of the spectrum can be suitable for rural electrification or decentralized energy generation, while larger projects closer to 10 MW have the potential to contribute significantly to regional grids.

Many 1-10 MW small hydropower projects are designed with grid integration in mind. They contribute to stabilizing regional grids by providing a steady source of renewable energy. Grid connectivity enables these projects to feed surplus power back into the grid, increasing their economic viability.

Smaller projects in this segment are often utilized for rural electrification, bringing power to off-grid and remote areas. These projects have a transformative impact on local communities by improving living conditions, supporting economic activities, and enhancing healthcare and education facilities.

Small hydropower projects in the 1-10 MW range are generally perceived to have a lower environmental impact compared to larger dams and reservoirs. They typically employ run-of-river designs that minimize habitat disruption and do not require extensive flooding.

Type Insights

The Mini Hydropower segment is projected to experience rapid growth during the forecast period. The 1-10 MW segment plays a crucial role in the small hydropower market, catering to a diverse range of opportunities. These projects are economically feasible due to their relatively moderate capital costs compared to larger hydropower plants.

Within the 1-10 MW range, projects can vary significantly in size and complexity. Smaller projects at the lower end of the spectrum may be suitable for rural electrification or decentralized energy generation, while larger projects closer to 10 MW can make substantial contributions to regional grids.

Many 1-10 MW small hydropower projects prioritize grid integration to stabilize regional grids by providing a steady source of renewable energy. Grid connectivity enables these projects to feed surplus power back into the grid, enhancing their economic viability.

Smaller projects in this segment are commonly utilized for rural electrification, bringing power to off-grid and remote areas. These projects have a transformative impact on local communities by improving living conditions, supporting economic activities, and enhancing healthcare and education facilities.

Small hydropower projects in the 1-10 MW range generally have a lower environmental impact compared to larger dams and reservoirs. They typically employ run-of-river designs that minimize habitat disruption and do not require extensive flooding.

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Regional Insights

South India emerged as the dominant region in the India Small Hydropower market in 2023, holding the largest market share. South India showcases a diverse range of geographical features, encompassing the Western and Eastern Ghats, abundant rivers, and hilly terrains. These natural characteristics present ample opportunities for the development of small hydropower projects. The region's geographical diversity facilitates the implementation of small hydropower projects across various settings, ranging from high-altitude areas with abundant rainfall to lowland rivers and streams.

The rapid urbanization and industrialization witnessed in South India have resulted in an increased demand for energy. The region's growing population and economic activities necessitate a stable and sustainable source of electricity. Small hydropower projects can play a pivotal role in meeting this demand while simultaneously reducing reliance on fossil fuels and addressing environmental concerns.

The governments of South Indian states have demonstrated their commitment to renewable energy development, specifically in the realm of small hydropower. Various state-level policies and incentives have been instituted to promote sectoral growth. For instance, Kerala introduced the "Small Hydropower Policy 2019" to encourage investments and streamline approvals for small hydropower projects. These initiatives foster an enabling environment for project developers and investors.

South India places significant emphasis on environmental conservation, given its rich biodiversity and unique ecosystems. Consequently, small hydropower projects in the region are subjected to stringent environmental regulations and scrutiny. Comprehensive environmental impact assessments (EIAs) are mandatory for these projects, ensuring adherence to sustainability standards and mitigating potential ecological impacts.

Recent Developments

  • In October 2023, the private sector company Green Infra Ltd announced plans to develop a new 25 MW SHP in the state of Himachal Pradesh. The project is expected to be completed within three years and will generate clean energy for over 25,000 households.

Key Market Players

  • Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL)
  • NHPC Limited
  • Tata Power
  • Larsen & Toubro (L&T)
  • Gati Infrastructure Limited
  • Pennar Hydro Systems
  • Jain Irrigation Systems Ltd.
  • Ashden India Renewable Energy Collective (AIREC)
  • Greenko Group
  • Oriental Green Power Company Ltd.

By Capacity

By Type

By Components

By Region

  • Up to 1 MW
  • 1–10 MW
  • Micro Hydropower
  • Mini Hydropower
  • North India
  • South India
  • West India
  • East India

Report Scope:

In this report, the India Small Hydropower Market has been segmented into the following categories, in addition to the industry trends which have also been detailed below:

  • India Small Hydropower Market, By Capacity:

o   Up to 1 MW

o   1–10 MW     

  • India Small Hydropower Market, By Type:

o   Micro Hydropower

o   Mini Hydropower     

  • India Small Hydropower Market, By Components:

o   Electromechanical Equipment

o   Electric infrastructure

o   Civil Works      

  • India Small Hydropower Market, By Region:

o   North India

o   South India

o   West India

o   East India      

Competitive Landscape

Company Profiles: Detailed analysis of the major companies present in the India Small Hydropower Market.

Available Customizations:

India Small Hydropower Market report with the given market data, Tech Sci Research offers customizations according to a company's specific needs. The following customization options are available for the report:

Company Information

  • Detailed analysis and profiling of additional market players (up to five).

India Small Hydropower Market is an upcoming report to be released soon. If you wish an early delivery of this report or want to confirm the date of release, please contact us at [email protected]

Table of content

1.         Product Overview

1.1.    Market Definition

1.2.    Scope of the Market

1.2.1.Markets Covered

1.2.2.Years Considered for Study

1.2.3.Key Market Segmentations

2.         Research Methodology

2.1.    Objective of the Study

2.2.    Baseline Methodology

2.3.    Formulation of the Scope

2.4.    Assumptions and Limitations

2.5.    Sources of Research

2.5.1.Secondary Research

2.5.2.Primary Research

2.6.    Approach for the Market Study

2.6.1.The Bottom-Up Approach

2.6.2.The Top-Down Approach

2.7.    Methodology Followed for Calculation of Market Size & Market Shares

2.8.    Forecasting Methodology

2.8.1.Data Triangulation & Validation

3.         Executive Summary

4.         Impact of COVID-19 on India Small Hydropower Market

5.         Voice of Customer

6.         India Small Hydropower Market Overview

7.         India Small Hydropower Market Outlook

7.1.    Market Size & Forecast

7.1.1.By Value

7.2.    Market Share & Forecast

7.2.1.By Capacity (Up to 1 MW and 1–10 MW)

7.2.2.By Type (Micro Hydropower and Mini Hydropower)

7.2.3.By Components (Electromechanical Equipment, Electric infrastructure and Civil Works)

7.2.4.By Region (North India, South India, West India and East India)

7.3.    By Company (2023)

7.4.     Market Map

8.         North India Small Hydropower Market Outlook

8.1.    Market Size & Forecast

8.1.1.By Value

8.2.    Market Share & Forecast

8.2.1.By Capacity

8.2.2.By Type

8.2.5.By Components

9.         South India Small Hydropower Market Outlook

9.1.    Market Size & Forecast

9.1.1.By Value