Report Description

Forecast Period

2025-2029

Market Size, By Volume (2023)

6.91 thousand Metric Tonnes

CAGR (2024-2029)

3.35%

Fastest Growing Segment

Bio Grade

Largest Market

West India

 

Market Overview

India Isobutyl Benzene Market achieved a total market volume of 6.91 thousand Metric Tonnes in 2023 and is poised for strong growth in the forecast period, with a projected Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 3.35% through 2029.   Isobutyl benzene, a chemical compound with various industrial applications, plays a crucial role in the production of antioxidants, specialty chemicals, and fragrances. As an essential intermediate, isobutyl benzene contributes significantly to India's chemical and industrial landscape. The Indian isobutyl benzene market has witnessed substantial growth due to the country's expanding industrial base, the demand for specialty chemicals, and its pivotal role in the production of various chemical products.  The Indian isobutyl benzene market has experienced noteworthy growth in recent years. Isobutyl benzene is a versatile chemical with applications ranging from the production of antioxidants to the synthesis of fragrances. Its significance is underscored by its role in various industries, including the chemical and cosmetic sectors. The production of antioxidants is a significant driver of the isobutyl benzene market in India. Isobutyl benzene serves as a crucial raw material in the synthesis of antioxidants used in various industrial applications, including plastics and rubber. The expansion of India's manufacturing sectors has contributed to the demand for antioxidants. Isobutyl benzene is used in the production of specialty chemicals, including agrochemicals and pharmaceutical intermediates. The growth of the specialty chemicals sector has significantly increased the demand for isobutyl benzene. Isobutyl benzene plays a role in the production of fragrances and perfumes. As India's cosmetic and personal care industry expands, the demand for fragrances and perfumes has increased. Isobutyl benzene is flammable and poses safety risks during transportation and handling. Adherence to stringent safety protocols is crucial to mitigate these risks. The production and use of isobutyl benzene can raise environmental concerns, particularly in terms of emissions and waste disposal. Regulatory compliance and responsible disposal are vital challenges. There is a growing emphasis on adopting green and sustainable practices in isobutyl benzene production. The industry is exploring cleaner and more environmentally friendly production methods.  Research and development efforts are directed towards the development of biodegradable antioxidants, potentially influencing the demand for isobutyl benzene in these applications. The future outlook for the Indian isobutyl benzene market remains positive. As India's manufacturing, specialty chemicals, and cosmetics sectors continue to grow, the demand for isobutyl benzene is expected to persist. The industry is also likely to adapt to emerging trends, with a strong focus on green and sustainable practices in production and the development of biodegradable antioxidants. In conclusion, the Indian isobutyl benzene market is a vital player in supporting the country's manufacturing, specialty chemicals, and cosmetic sectors. As India advances on its path of industrialization and environmental awareness, the market is poised to evolve and thrive, reinforcing its significance in the chemical and manufacturing landscape of the nation.

Key Market Drivers

Growing Demand from Fragrance and Perfume Industry Propels Indian Isobutyl Benzene Market Growth

The Indian isobutyl benzene market is witnessing substantial growth, primarily propelled by the increasing demand from the fragrance and perfume industry. Isobutyl benzene, a chemical compound with a pleasant and versatile aroma, serves as a fundamental building block in the synthesis of various fragrance compounds, contributing to the expansion of India's isobutyl benzene market.

One of the key factors fueling the surge in demand for isobutyl benzene in India is its essential role as a fragrance ingredient. Isobutyl benzene is used as a raw material in the creation of aroma chemicals that mimic the scents found in nature, such as floral, fruity, and woody notes. These aroma chemicals are essential components in the formulation of fragrances and perfumes, contributing to the unique and appealing scents that captivate consumers.

The fragrance and perfume industry are a significant consumer of isobutyl benzene and aroma chemicals. Perfumes and fragrances are cherished by individuals for their ability to enhance personal grooming, boost confidence, and leave a lasting impression. As India's population grows and consumer preferences evolve, the demand for a wide range of fragrances and perfumes continues to rise, further supporting the demand for isobutyl benzene.

Isobutyl benzene plays a pivotal role in the synthesis of aroma compounds, such as benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, and benzyl acetate. These compounds are widely used in the production of perfumes, colognes, body sprays, and scented products, ranging from cosmetics to household items. The delightful and evocative scents created by these aroma compounds are key factors influencing consumers' choices when selecting personal care and home products.

The fragrance and perfume industry are also known for its high levels of innovation and creativity. Perfumers and fragrance chemists constantly seek new scent combinations and ingredients to develop unique and appealing fragrances. This ongoing innovation in fragrance creation drives the need for a variety of aroma chemicals, including those derived from isobutyl benzene, to craft distinctive and marketable scents.

Moreover, the demand for natural and synthetic fragrances in India is expanding, with a growing interest in eco-friendly and sustainable products. The versatility of isobutyl benzene enables the synthesis of both natural and synthetic aroma compounds, allowing the fragrance industry to cater to different consumer preferences while maintaining sustainable and responsible practices.

Additionally, the personal care and cosmetics sector is a significant contributor to the demand for fragrances and aroma chemicals. Perfume and scent ingredients are integral in various personal care products, including soaps, lotions, shampoos, and deodorants. As India's personal care and cosmetics industry grows and diversifies, the demand for fragrances derived from isobutyl benzene remains strong.

The demand for aroma compounds and fragrances is not limited to personal care and cosmetics; it extends to home care products, air fresheners, and scented candles. Consumers are increasingly seeking products that create pleasant and inviting living environments. The versatility of isobutyl benzene in creating a broad range of fragrances allows manufacturers to meet this demand for scented home and cleaning products.

The growth of India's fragrance and perfume industry, driven by consumer preferences, evolving market trends, and an increasing focus on sustainability, is a significant factor contributing to the demand for isobutyl benzene. As fragrance and scent creation continue to be integral to personal care, cosmetics, and household products, the demand for isobutyl benzene remains strong, supporting innovation, creativity, and economic growth in the fragrance industry.

In conclusion, the rising demand for isobutyl benzene in India, driven by its vital role in the fragrance and perfume industry, positions it as a fundamental component in various consumer products. Isobutyl benzene's versatility in aroma compound synthesis aligns with India's evolving consumer preferences and the fragrance industry's quest for innovation and sustainability, contributing to the country's position as a key player in the global fragrance market.

Rising Demand from the Manufacturing Industry for Production of Specialty Chemicals Propels India's Isobutyl Benzene Market Growth

The Indian isobutyl benzene market is experiencing significant growth, primarily driven by the increasing demand from the manufacturing industry for the production of specialty chemicals. Isobutyl benzene, a versatile chemical compound, plays a pivotal role as a key precursor in the synthesis of various specialty chemicals, contributing to the expansion of India's isobutyl benzene market.

One of the key factors behind the surge in demand for isobutyl benzene in India is its crucial role as a building block for the production of specialty chemicals. Specialty chemicals are a class of high-value, performance-enhancing chemicals used in various industrial applications. They are specifically formulated to provide unique properties and functions, making them essential in a wide range of industries, including pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, plastics, and electronics.

The pharmaceutical industry is a significant consumer of specialty chemicals derived from isobutyl benzene. These chemicals are used in the synthesis of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), excipients, and intermediates. The versatility and reliability of isobutyl benzene make it a vital component in pharmaceutical manufacturing, contributing to the development of a wide range of healthcare products. As India's pharmaceutical sector continues to grow and innovate to meet domestic and international healthcare demands, the demand for isobutyl benzene and its derivatives remains strong.

Additionally, isobutyl benzene is used as a precursor in the synthesis of agrochemicals, including pesticides and herbicides. These agrochemicals play a critical role in modern agriculture by protecting crops from pests, diseases, and weeds, ultimately ensuring higher agricultural yields and food security. As India faces the challenge of feeding its large and growing population, the need for agrochemicals, and therefore isobutyl benzene, continues to rise.

The plastics and polymers industry also relies on specialty chemicals for various applications, including plasticizers, heat stabilizers, and flame retardants. Isobutyl benzene contributes to the production of these specialty chemicals, enhancing the performance and durability of plastic and polymer products. As India's plastics and polymers industry expands, driven by various sectors such as packaging, automotive, and consumer goods, the demand for isobutyl benzene for these applications is expected to increase.

In the electronics industry, specialty chemicals are used in the manufacturing of semiconductors, printed circuit boards, and electronic components. These chemicals are crucial in enhancing the performance, reliability, and miniaturization of electronic devices. Isobutyl benzene plays a role in the synthesis of specialty chemicals that are used as solvents, cleaning agents, and adhesion promoters in the electronics manufacturing process. As the electronics industry in India grows and becomes more sophisticated, the demand for specialty chemicals derived from isobutyl benzene is set to rise.

Moreover, the specialty chemicals market encompasses a broad spectrum of applications in sectors such as textiles, coatings, adhesives, and construction. Specialty chemicals contribute to the development of high-performance materials, innovative coatings, and advanced adhesives, enabling these industries to meet the evolving needs of consumers and achieve superior product quality.

The growth of India's specialty chemicals industry, driven by a wide range of sectors, including pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, plastics, electronics, and more, positions isobutyl benzene as a fundamental component for various industrial applications. As India continues to invest in these industrial sectors and aims to strengthen its position in the global market, the demand for isobutyl benzene remains strong, supporting innovation, sustainability, and economic growth.

In conclusion, the rising demand for isobutyl benzene in India, driven by its crucial role in the production of specialty chemicals, positions it as a fundamental component in various industries. Isobutyl benzene's versatility in chemical synthesis aligns with India's industrial advancement and contributes to the country's position as a key player in the global market, facilitating the production of high-value specialty chemicals across various sectors.

Growing Demand for Production of Antioxidants is Propelling the India Isobutyl Benzene Market Growth

The India isobutyl benzene market is witnessing significant growth, primarily driven by the increasing demand for isobutyl benzene in the production of antioxidants. Isobutyl benzene, a versatile chemical compound, plays a pivotal role as a precursor in the synthesis of various antioxidants, contributing to the expansion of India's isobutyl benzene market.

One of the key factors behind the surge in demand for isobutyl benzene in India is its essential role in the manufacturing of antioxidants. Antioxidants are crucial compounds that help prevent the degradation of materials due to oxidation, thereby extending their lifespan and maintaining their quality. These antioxidants are widely used in industries such as plastics, rubber, and the food and beverage sector to protect products from oxidative damage.

The plastics and rubber industry are a significant consumer of antioxidants derived from isobutyl benzene. These antioxidants are added to plastic and rubber formulations to improve their stability, extend their service life, and protect them from the harmful effects of environmental factors such as heat, light, and oxygen. As India's plastics and rubber industry continues to grow, driven by various sectors, including packaging, automotive, and consumer goods, the demand for isobutyl benzene to produce antioxidants is on the rise.

Additionally, antioxidants play a crucial role in the food and beverage industry. They are added to various food products to prevent spoilage, extend shelf life, and maintain the quality and freshness of items such as oils, fats, and packaged foods. Isobutyl benzene contributes to the production of antioxidants that are safe for use in food applications, allowing manufacturers to meet the demand for high-quality and longer-lasting food products in India's ever-expanding food and beverage market.

The demand for antioxidants is not limited to the plastics, rubber, and food industries. They are also used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic sectors, contributing to the stability and preservation of products. In pharmaceuticals, antioxidants are essential in protecting the efficacy of drugs and preventing degradation, while in cosmetics, they help maintain the quality of skincare and beauty products. As these sectors continue to innovate and expand in India, the demand for antioxidants and their precursors, including isobutyl benzene, remains strong.

Moreover, antioxidants find applications in various other industrial sectors, such as lubricants, fuels, and adhesives. They are used to enhance the performance of these products by preventing oxidation, reducing wear and tear, and extending the maintenance intervals. Isobutyl benzene's versatility in contributing to the production of antioxidants allows these sectors to meet the evolving needs of their customers while ensuring the durability and reliability of their products.

The growth of India's antioxidants market, driven by a wide range of industries, positions isobutyl benzene as a fundamental component for various applications. As India continues to invest in industrial sectors and advance its manufacturing capabilities, the demand for isobutyl benzene to produce antioxidants remains strong. Moreover, the global shift toward sustainable and eco-friendly solutions in various industries is driving the development of green antioxidants, further enhancing the prospects for isobutyl benzene in the market.

In conclusion, the increasing demand for isobutyl benzene in India, driven by its essential role in the production of antioxidants, positions it as a fundamental component for various industrial applications. Isobutyl benzene's versatility in chemical synthesis aligns with India's industrial advancement and contributes to the country's position as a key player in the global market, facilitating the production of high-value antioxidants across multiple sectors. As industries continue to prioritize quality and sustainability, the demand for isobutyl benzene and its derivatives is expected to remain robust, supporting innovation, reliability, and economic growth.


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Key Market Challenges

Fluctuating Prices of Raw Materials

The fluctuating prices of raw materials are acting as a significant hindrance to the growth of the India Isobutyl Benzene market. Isobutyl benzene is a crucial chemical compound used in various industries, including chemicals, fragrances, and the production of rubber accelerators. The production of isobutyl benzene relies heavily on the availability and pricing of key raw materials, primarily isobutylene and benzene.

The prices of these raw materials can be subject to significant fluctuations due to market dynamics, supply and demand imbalances, geopolitical factors, and energy costs. Such volatility can impact production costs, making it challenging for manufacturers to maintain competitive pricing and plan for sustained growth in the market.

To address this challenge, the India Isobutyl Benzene market should focus on diversifying its sourcing strategies, optimizing production processes, and building partnerships with raw material suppliers. These efforts are essential to stabilize the supply chain, manage production costs effectively, and promote market growth while navigating the challenges of fluctuating raw material prices.

Stringent Environmental Regulations

Stringent environmental regulations are proving to be a substantial impediment to the growth of the India Isobutyl Benzene market. Isobutyl benzene is a vital chemical used in various industries, including fragrances, chemicals, and rubber manufacturing. However, its production and use can raise environmental concerns due to the potential hazards associated with chemical waste, emissions, and toxic byproducts.

Environmental regulations, aimed at reducing environmental impact and ensuring the responsible handling of hazardous materials, have become increasingly stringent. Compliance with these regulations often requires substantial investments in cleaner production methods, waste management systems, and emission control measures, which can lead to increased operational costs for manufacturers and hinder market growth.

To address this challenge, the India Isobutyl Benzene market must prioritize the adoption of cleaner and more environmentally friendly production practices. Collaborations with regulatory authorities and industry organizations can help streamline compliance efforts, promote responsible isobutyl benzene production, align with evolving environmental standards, and ultimately foster market growth despite the hindrance of stringent regulations.

Key Market Trends

Increasing Demand from the Pharmaceutical Industry

The increasing demand from the pharmaceutical industry is a key trend driving the growth of the India Isobutyl Benzene market. Isobutyl benzene, a chemical compound derived from benzene, is used in various industrial applications, but its significance has recently surged within the pharmaceutical sector. This trend is fueled by the pharmaceutical industry's rising need for high-quality solvents and intermediates in drug manufacturing processes.

Isobutyl benzene offers valuable characteristics such as solvency and reactivity, making it an essential component for the synthesis of various pharmaceutical compounds. It is used in the production of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), which form the basis of pharmaceutical formulations. As the Indian pharmaceutical industry continues to expand and develop a strong presence in both domestic and global markets, the demand for high-quality chemicals like isobutyl benzene has grown substantially.

This trend underscores the critical role that isobutyl benzene plays in the pharmaceutical sector and its contribution to the growth of the India Isobutyl Benzene market. It also highlights the market's ability to adapt and cater to the evolving demands of diverse industries, supporting the nation's pharmaceutical industry as it strives for excellence and expansion in drug manufacturing.

Growing Demand for Bio-Based Iso-butyl Benzene

The growing demand for bio-based isobutyl benzene is a key trend propelling the growth of the India Isobutyl Benzene market. Isobutyl benzene, a chemical compound commonly derived from petrochemical sources, is now the focus of a shift towards more sustainable production methods. This trend is driven by the increasing emphasis on environmental responsibility and the quest for greener chemical alternatives.

Bio-based isobutyl benzene is produced from renewable feedstocks, such as biomass or organic waste, utilizing eco-friendly manufacturing processes. This approach offers a more sustainable and environmentally responsible source of isobutyl benzene, reducing the industry's reliance on fossil fuels and minimizing its carbon footprint.

The demand for bio-based isobutyl benzene aligns with India's commitment to green and sustainable manufacturing practices. As the nation strives to reduce its environmental impact and embrace responsible sourcing and production, the adoption of bio-based isobutyl benzene provides a compelling solution for various applications, including eco-friendly solvents and intermediates.

This trend underscores the India Isobutyl Benzene market's responsiveness to the evolving preferences of eco-conscious industries and consumers. It reflects the market's commitment to innovation and environmental responsibility, driving its growth while addressing sustainability and environmental concerns.

Segmental Insights

Type Insights

Based on the type, the industrial grade segment emerged as the dominant player in the Indian market for Isobutyl Benzene in 2023. The dominance of the industrial grade segment can be attributed to the versatile and critical uses of Isobutyl Benzene in industrial processes. Isobutyl Benzene is known for its reliability, consistency, and high quality, making it an indispensable component in various industrial applications, such as the production of chemicals, solvents, and lubricants.

India's growing industrial and manufacturing sectors have significantly driven the demand for Isobutyl Benzene, reinforcing the prominence of this segment. The segment's dominance is further underscored by the fact that industrial grade Isobutyl Benzene aligns with the nation's growing focus on industrial processes that prioritize product quality, efficiency, and innovation.

In conclusion, the dominance of the industrial grade segment in the Indian Isobutyl Benzene market is a result of its critical role in various industrial applications, its alignment with the nation's growing demand for high-quality industrial materials, and its contribution to the industrial and manufacturing sectors. This dominance is expected to persist as these industries continue to expand and prioritize product quality and innovation.

End-Use Industry Insights

Based on the end-use industry, the chemical segment is projected to experience rapid growth during the forecast period. The dominance of the chemical segment can be attributed to the versatile and critical uses of Isobutyl Benzene in chemical processes. Isobutyl Benzene is a key ingredient in the production of various chemicals, including pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and specialty chemicals. Its reliability, consistency, and high purity make it an indispensable component in these applications.

India's growing chemical and pharmaceutical industries, as well as the increasing demand for high-quality chemicals, have significantly driven the demand for Isobutyl Benzene, reinforcing the prominence of this segment.

The segment's dominance is further underscored by the fact that Isobutyl Benzene is essential for various chemical manufacturing processes, and its use aligns with the nation's growing focus on high-quality, efficient, and innovative chemical production.

In conclusion, the dominance of the chemical segment in the Indian Isobutyl Benzene market is a result of its critical role in various chemical applications, its alignment with the nation's growing demand for high-quality chemicals, and its contribution to the chemical industry's growth. This dominance is expected to persist as these industries continue to expand and prioritize product quality and innovation.


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Regional Insights

  • Based on the region, the dominance of the Western region in the Indian Isobutyl Benzene market is a result of its industrial diversity, well-established infrastructure, strategic advantages, and its focus on sustainable and high-quality chemical manufacturing. This dominance is expected to persist as the region continues to thrive in various chemical and pharmaceutical sectors and as the demand for high-quality chemicals remains on the rise.
  • One of the primary reasons for the Western region's dominance is its industrial strength and the presence of significant chemical manufacturing sectors. States like Gujarat and Maharashtra in the Western region are home to a substantial number of manufacturing facilities that rely on Isobutyl Benzene for various applications within the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The region's well-established industrial infrastructure, research and development facilities, and a conducive environment for chemical manufacturing have played a pivotal role in its prominence.
  • Furthermore, the Western region's strategic location and access to major ports make it a hub for the import and distribution of chemicals like Isobutyl Benzene, serving industries not only within the region but also across the country.
  • The Western region's proactive approach to environmental regulations and its commitment to sustainable and high-quality production processes have also driven the demand for Isobutyl Benzene, particularly in industries that prioritize eco-friendly and efficient chemical production.

Key Market Players

  • Akshar Chemical India Private
  • Meru Chem Pvt. Ltd.
  • Arihant Chemicals
  • Hindustan Organic Chemicals Limited
  • Sanjay Chemicals (India) Pvt. Ltd.

By Type

By Application

By End-Use Industry

By Region

  • Industrial Grade
  • Pharmaceutical Grade
  • Bio Grade
  • Surfactant
  • Analgesic
  • Ibuprofen
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Painkillers
  • Feedstock
  • Fragrance
  • Others
  • Personal Care
  • Pharmaceutical
  • Chemical
  • Industrial
  • Others
  • West India
  • North India
  • South India
  • East India

 

 

Report Scope:

In this report, the India Isobutyl Benzene Market has been segmented into the following categories, in addition to the industry trends which have also been detailed below:

  • India Isobutyl Benzene Market, By Type:

o   Industrial Grade

o   Pharmaceutical Grade

o   Bio Grade

·         India Isobutyl Benzene Market, By Application:

o   Surfactant

o   Analgesic

o   Ibuprofen

o   Anti-inflammatory

o   Painkillers

o   Feedstock

o   Fragrance

o   Others

·         India Isobutyl Benzene Market, By End-Use Industry:

o   Personal Care

o   Pharmaceutical

o   Chemical

o   Industrial

o   Others

  • India Isobutyl Benzene Market, By Region:

o   West India

o   North India

o   South India

o   East India

Competitive Landscape

Company Profiles: Detailed analysis of the major companies presents in the India Isobutyl Benzene Market.

Available Customizations:

India Isobutyl Benzene Market report with the given market data, Tech Sci Research offers customizations according to a company's specific needs. The following customization options are available for the report:

Company Information

  • Detailed analysis and profiling of additional market players (up to five).

India Isobutyl Benzene Market is an upcoming report to be released soon. If you wish an early delivery of this report or want to confirm the date of release, please contact us at [email protected]               

Table of content

1.    Product Overview

1.1.  Market Definition

1.2.  Scope of the Market

1.2.1.    Markets Covered

1.2.2.    Years Considered for Study

1.2.3.    Key Market Segmentations

2.    Research Methodology

2.1.  Objective of the Study

2.2.  Baseline Methodology

2.3.  Key Industry Partners

2.4.  Major Association and Secondary Sources

2.5.  Forecasting Methodology

2.6.  Data Triangulation & Validation

2.7.  Assumptions and Limitations

3.    Executive Summary

3.1.  Overview of the Market

3.2.  Overview of Key Market Segmentations

3.3.  Overview of Key Market Players

3.4.  Overview of Key Regions/Countries

3.5.  Overview of Market Drivers, Challenges, and Trends

4.    Voice of Customers

5.    Impact of COVID-19 on India Isobutyl Benzene Market

6.    India Isobutyl Benzene Market Outlook

6.1.  Market Size & Forecast

6.1.1.    By Value & Volume

6.2.  Market Share & Forecast

6.2.1.    By Type (Industrial Grade, Pharmaceutical Grade, and Bio Grade)

6.2.2.    By Application (Surfactant, Analgesic, Ibuprofen, Anti-inflammatory, Painkillers, Feedstock, Fragrance, and Others)

6.2.3.    By End-Use Industry (Personal Care, Pharmaceutical, Chemical, Industrial, and Others)

6.2.4.    By Region (North, South, East, West)

6.2.5.    By Company (2022)

6.3.  Product Market Map

7.    North India Isobutyl Benzene Market Outlook

7.1.  Market Size & Forecast       

7.1.1.    By Value

7.2.  Market Share & Forecast

7.2.1.    By Type

7.2.2.    By Application

7.2.3.    By End-Use

8.    South India Isobutyl Benzene Market Outlook

8.1.  Market Size & Forecast       

8.1.1.    By Value

8.2.  Market Share & Forecast

8.2.1.    By Type

8.2.2.    By Application

8.2.3.    By End-Use

9.    East India Isobutyl Benzene Market Outlook

9.1.  Market Size & Forecast       

9.1.1.    By Value

9.2.  Market Share & Forecast

9.2.1.    By Type

9.2.2.    By Application

9.2.3.    By End-Use

10. West India Isobutyl Benzene Market Outlook

10.1.             Market Size & Forecast        

10.1.1. By Value

10.2.             Market Share & Forecast

10.2.1. By Type

10.2.2. By Application

10.2.3. By End-Use

11. Market Dynamics

11.1.             Drivers

11.2.             Challenges

12. Market Trends & Developments

12.1.             Merger & Acquisition

12.2.             Product Development

12.3.             Recent Developments

13. Porters Five Forces Analysis

13.1.             Competition in the Industry

13.2.             Potential of New Entrants

13.3.             Power of Suppliers

13.4.             Power of Customers