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Electric Two Wheeler & Its Manufacturing

Electric Two Wheeler & Its Manufacturing - TechSci Research

Automotive | Jun, 2021

Introduction:  The electric two-wheeler set-up appears a lot more promising, in the form of research, financial acquisitions & investments, that makes the electric vehicle segment thrilling. Well, there is also the forward push by the government and the references of its think-tank, NITI Aayog.

Why EV’s? The innovation of internal combustion engine is one of the best creations of humankind. The traditional vehicles with ICE provide a good performance but are the major cause for poor efficiency and environment pollution across the country.

Decreasing fuel consumption and carbon emissions are the most important goal among the present-day plan of government across the globe. Thinking about the future of a country, an efficient and eco-friendly electric two-wheeler must be designed and manufactured.

Impact of COVID-19 on Electric Two-wheeler market: Since the onset of pandemic, leading authorities-imposed lockdown restrictions and released a set of precautionary guidelines. Manufacturing units were temporarily shut down and disruption in supply chain was observed. Workers moved down to their native area which created shortage of workforce. The automotive industry including electric two wheeler market faced a setback and post COVID-19, electric two wheeler market is expected to pick up the pace eventually.

What is the need of Electric and Hybrid Two Wheelers?

All existing two wheelers that are in the market cause pollution and their fuel cost is also increasing day by day.  To compensate the changing fuel cost and curb down the high pollution levels, a good remedy is needed.

Zero tailpipe emission technologies have long been held up as the last solution to transportation-related pollution problems. Electric two wheelers have been offered for several decades. Electric two wheelers, with their zero tailpipe emissions, can significantly improve urban air quality.

Working Principle

The working starts with a battery connection.  The battery consists of two terminals one is positive and another one is the negative terminal.  The positive terminal is linked to the stator body of the motor on the other hand, the negative terminal is linked to the edge of the vehicle.

The battery and the motor are connected into series.  The wire connections were made for the flow of electrons starting with one section then onto the next part. At the point when the engine empowers through the current, the stator field coil gets magnetized and induces the rotor shaft to rotate in the counter clockwise direction. Towards the finish of the engine shaft significant conditions were made for the seating of clutch assembly. Clutch is a power transmission gadget, which offers drive to the back wheel. The Clutch get together is placed with the rotor shaft through needle orientation. On the other end of the rotor shaft an alternator is settled for the reviving framework, as it is an electrical gadget which changes over the rotational power into the electromotive power. This alternator is connected to revive the battery while the vehicle is in movement. This course of action is done through V-belt pulley.

The current flows from the battery with a guide of control framework to the stator body. This current makes the field coil temporarily magnetized with the goal that the rotor shaft tends to pivot in its virtual speed. As there is a V-belt drive between the pedal shaft and the grasp gathering, the movement of the vehicle is sufficiently attained.

The speed in the pedal shaft is constantly lessened with the utilization of sprockets. Here the speed decrease is in the proportion of 1:4. This game plan lessens the speed of the engine repeatedly. To the correct side of the vehicle there lies a chain drive for the pedal shaft. A free wheel is mounted on the back wheel to limit the turn of the pedal under running condition.

What are the principal parts of electric two wheelers framework?

Basically, a two-wheeler gets its electricity from two sources – a battery and an alternator. The function of the battery is to store charge, it maintains a stated voltage level and keeps the electrical system working when the engine is switched off.

On the other hand, the alternator, produces electricity when the engine is switched on. It provides electricity power supply to numerous electrical devices and charges the battery on the go. Let’s go in little detail of the two:


A 12-volt two wheeler battery is a six-cell unit and is made of a plastic having a set of positive and negative plates occupied in an electrolyte. When fully charged each cell has a voltage of around 2.1 volts, which leads to a combined voltage of around 12.6 volts. The main function of the battery is to deliver Direct Current to the vehicles electronics when the engine is turned off. Moreover, the battery also provides the current to crank up the engine.

Obviously, lithium ion batteries of some kind would be the great enabler. Lithium is a now entering the market, they are still very costly and something of a question mark. Traditional lithium cells, as utilized in PCs, have a warm runaway potential - meaning they tend to burst into flames, now and again like a Roman light. New materials and sciences considering lithium are endeavouring to address the wellbeing issue. Moreover, the prices of the lithium ion batteries have come down and the battery manufacturers are claiming no fire problems.

Battery Upgradation



The function of the alternator is to generate electricity when the engine gets started. The alternator uses the engine’s crankshaft to turn the magnets and produce electricity. It produces alternating current (AC) which needs to be converted to direct current which is attained over a regulator which not only converts AC to DC but also regulates the amount of current that is sent to all the electronics present.


The current produced on a two wheeler is channelized through a wiring harness. It plays an essential role in connecting various electrical and electronic components on a two-wheeler. The wiring harness is a set of wires, terminals and connectors, designed for a two wheeler model to supply electric power.


There are mainly two types of controllers, one is brushed, and another is brushless. According to the motor in use the function of the controller also varies. Because of high efficiency, less cost and durability, the brushless motors are popular nowadays, whereas brushed motors because of less complex controller mechanism, is still in use fairly.

Let’s have a look that how these two wheelers are produced/manufactured?

Manufacturing Unit Size: The size of the unit totally depends upon the volume of business we need to do, the quantum of assets we have available to us, and the turnover target we intend to accomplish.

For an instance:

Hero Electric is considering over setting up multiple assembly plants to meet its target of increasing sales by ten times over the next five years, including exports. The company currently has a production capacity of 75,000 units per annum at its Ludhiana plant.

Production Line:

In the manufacturing unit parts like Handle bar, Frame, Fork, Swing arm, Carriers, Centre and side stands are being manufactured.

The parts after manufacturing are pre-treated in the plant to increase their life. At the stages the product inspection is done. The manufacturing plant should have an in-house paint shop facility to paint plastic parts. The electric two wheeler assembly should be made up with modern manufacturing concepts backed by stringent quality system.

In the manufacturing unit, the vehicles pass through several tests like:

Reliability Test:  The electric two wheelers parts/components are being tested in the Lab for reliability test. The manufacturing plant should have reliability testing facilities like life test for all electrical components, endurance test for tyre, fatigue test for handlebar, water dip test for motors, salt spray testing for steel parts, brake wire testing, battery testing, UV/weather test for plastic painted parts and brake shoe performance testing.

Product Testing: On a dynamometer testing machine, the two wheeler electric vehicles are tested in-house on the parameters of electrical performance. In addition, 100% Electric two wheelers are tested on a specially developed E-BIKE TEST TRACK, constructed for uneven bumps, rain showers, bad road conditions, water logging on roads and steep gradients on flyovers.

A world class manufacturing base with a focused quality in wording of scale, quality, cost and technology for electric two wheeler and their basic segments will be an absolute necessity to accomplish the stated goal of hundred percent electric regime. The electric two wheeler industry in India i.e. the automobile and automobile component manufacturers will have the capability and the commitment to achieve this.

As per TechSci Research, “Indonesia Electric Two Wheeler Market, By Vehicle Type (Electric Motorcycle and Electric Scooters/Mopeds), By Battery Capacity (<25 Ah and >25 Ah), By Battery Type (Lead Acid and Li-ion), Competition, Forecast & Opportunities, 2025”, Indonesia electric two wheeler market is expected to grow around 20.96% until 2025 owing to rise in domestic manufacturing of electric scooters and increasing awareness about the harmful effects of greenhouse gases. Based on vehicle type, market can be divided into electric motorcycle and electric scooters/mopeds. The electric scooters/mopeds segment is anticipated to account for major market share due to ease and convenience of using scooters along with rise in number of female drivers.

What all you require in the setting up your electric two wheelers manufacturing unit?

Before setting a manufacturing plant, an OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) may be defined as Proprietor, Private/ Public Company or Partnership Firm who are manufacturing electric two wheelers shall have following:

  • Trade License
  • GST registration
  • PAN Card
  • TIN No.
  • Company Registration Certificate
  • Testing Centre Certification in satisfaction of VPQC and FAME-India Guidelines for each model of vehicles separately.

Each OEM can begin offer of electric two wheelers after enlistment with National Automotive Board which, states that specific vehicle is qualified for get advantage under the demand incentive under FAME India Scheme. It is to be noted that, only those electric two wheelers, which are manufactured in India, will be permitted for the demand incentive scheme.

Total ExpenditureThe automotive industry functions in a very competitive market which requires monitoring product costs, refining the product quality and shortening the development time. The cost of labour is one of main elements in effective auto making. But the role of labour cost in the overall picture is often given far greater attention than warranted. Growing technological advancements, new production methods and productivity gains, automakers now use just 29 hours of direct production labour to build the average vehicle.

Looking at the average price of electric two wheeler we see that:

  • Raw materials and purchased auto parts account for around 57% of the price
  • Engineering, research & development and Overheads account for around 16%
  • Advertising costs average INR 8000 for each vehicle sold
  • Dealership mark-ups average INR 10,000 per vehicle

Let’s discuss about the business model canvas for Electric Two Wheelers:

Key Activities

For any vehicle manufacturing company, the first stage is designing, manufacturing and delivering a product to the customers. These includes research and development, production, inventory, marketing, sales and customer support services.


Key partnerships

To guarantee reliable supplies of components it is important to maintain a healthy buyer-supplier relationship. To benefit from economy of scale most activities are planned to be outsourced. At first stage, everything that is not related to product development and marketing, e.g. web-development, law and accountant services is planned to be outsourced.

Key Resources

To develop and produce the electric two wheeler the manufacturing company requires both physical and human resources.

For R&D, tests, manufacturing, final assemblies and inventory the company requires a workshop with enough equipment. Marketing, support & sales services require an office space. Experts in electrical and hardware web-developers, engineering, designers, customer support, lawyers and accountants comprise a company’s team. The key rational property is a brand, though company plans to patent its core business ideas.

Value proposition

Electric two wheelers are high-tech solution for short-distance travels. The main product idea is to add stress-free riding experience without sacrificing on design, ease of use and price. Hence value proposition is great design and fair price.

 Cost Structure

Marketing and product development are key company’s activities, hence generate most of business costs. Fixed costs include salaries, rents, patents and manufacturing facilities whereas the variable costs very proportionally to the number of items produced.

Customer Relationship

There should be proper website or a platform support for the customer those may have a product related questions so that they can receive a personal assistance via the company’s web services.

Breakeven Analysis for the First Year:

Breakeven Analysis will tell how much the manufacturing company need to sell in a year just to cover all the costs.

Let’s take an example to understand the basis of achieving the breakeven point. Suppose the annual fixed cost to deliver a two wheeler is INR 998000 and the average margin per vehicle is INR 96,880. With a simple calculation, after selling 10.3 vehicles the company can achieve its breakeven point. But for the first year, the start up cost will also include, so after adding that cost also, lets assume that the start up cost is around INR 3,89,200 therefore, with 14.3 vehicles the company can achieve its first year breakup.

Some of the Cell Design, Development & Manufacturing Companies are:


Contact Details: 5927 Balfour Court,

Suite 213

Carlsbad, CA 92008                                      

Main: 760.931.2641

[email protected]


Contact Details: No.3009, BYD Road, Pingshan,

Shenzhen, 518118, P.R.China

Tel: +86-755-89888888

Fax: +86-755-84202222


LG Chem-

Contact Details: LG Twin Towers 20,



Seoul, 150-721, KOREA


Contact Details: 1006, Oaza Kadoma

Kadoma-shi, Osaka 571-8501, Japan

Tel. +81-6-6908-1121


Contact Details: Samsung GEC

26, Sangil-ro 6-gil


Seoul, Korea

Top Players in Electric Two Wheelers in Indian Market:

Advantages of Electric Two Wheelers:

  • No pollution & No fuel residue
  • Electric vehicles are very cheap. So common people can afford to purchase it.
  • Easy starting
  • No driving license required for two wheelers like mopeds
  • No registration with RTO required for moped type electric vehicles
  • Less wear & tear because no reciprocating parts
  • Lubrication is not necessary

Limitations of Electric Two Wheelers

  • It should be charged periodically
  • Not fit for long travel
  • Not applicable for heavy loads until suitable power supply & driving unit

TechSci Research’s India Electric Two Wheeler Market Analysis: